Mediarilisnusantara.com – The road network in Indonesia is increasing every year both in terms of length and capacity. Based on data, the road network in 2008 spanned 327172 km increased to 513500.75 km in 2017 (Bina Marga, 2020). It is estimated that this growth will continue to grow every year. One indicator of the improvement the road network can be seen from the increase in inroads, especially in urban areas. Nowadays, the need for road networks is not proportional to the availability of road materials such as aggregates, binders, and others. In addition, the service factor of road pavement to maintain road conditions in order to keep working well is not always optimal.
Therefore, road maintenance is the most important factor for regular repairs and road rehabilitation. Both of these are the duties of a civil instructor in developing road-handling technology by taking into account the materials used. Currently, several strategies and innovations have been developed, particularly in the road sector, to meet the need for additional road networks and maintain the performance of the existing road network. Among other things, the use of recycled asphalt pavement (Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement / RAP) and recycled concrete mix materials (Recycled Concrete Aggregate / RCA), Coldmix (cold asphalt mixture), Warmmix (warm asphalt mixture), utilization of rubber, utilization of plastic, utilization of steel slag, and others.
One of the strategies and innovations developed is the Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) method. This method is done by digging or taking the damaged road pavement to be recycled into a kind of aggregate and then reprocessed as a new pavement material. This method was used in 1915 not using this method before the increase in the price of the binder but in the United States in 1970. The method in Indonesia began to be applied in 2006 where the material added with cement was used as the foundation layer.
RAP processing can be distinguished based on its location. First, in situ recycling, namely the modification of the RAP carried out at the road pavement work site. Second, off-site recycling, namely the modification of the RAP carried out at the mixing plant, not at the pavement dredging site. Aged RAP materials need to be recycled to maintain their properties. Recycling is used to reduce asphalt viscosity and asphalt rejuvenation. Asphalt rejuvenation serves to restore the physical and chemical properties of asphalt.
The advantage of using the RAP method as an asphalt pavement material is that it can save on the use of new materials and can reduce usage costs if RAP is carried out in the field and can reduce carbon emissions. For example, the Japanese government as one of the countries that implement the use of RAP has issued a number of policies or strict regulations against the use of RAP.
Among them, the obligation to use RAP material as part of the new asphalt mixture. Second, the formation of certain management to manage RAP starts from raking to re-utilization. The possible disadvantage of using RAP is the result of the asphalt mixture being used more than once for recycling. In addition, the difficulty of implementing the use of RAP as an asphalt mixture in Indonesia is due to the need for new investments in modifying existing mixing units and the absence of strong regulations that encourage the use of RAP materials in road preservation programs.